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What is viscerotropic

Viscerotropic Medical Definition Merriam-Webster Medical

  1. Medical Definition of viscerotropic. : tending to affect or having an affinity for the viscera viscerotropic leishmaniasis
  2. (vĭs″ĕr-ō-trŏf′ĭk) [″ + Gr. trophe, nourishment] Pert. to trophic changes rel. to or associated with visceral conditions. Medical Dictionary, © 2009 Farlex and Partners Want to thank TFD for its existence
  3. Viscerotropic definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up now
  4. Viscerotropic disease: Case definition and guidelines for collection, analysis, and presentation of immunization safety dat
  5. Yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) is a severe illness similar to wild-type disease, with vaccine virus proliferating in multiple organs and often leading to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome or multiorgan failure and death. Since the initial cases of YEL
  6. Because viscerotropic disease has a highly predictable pathologic course, it is likely that viscerotropic disease post-YF vaccine occurs in low-income countries with the same incidence as in developing countries. YF vaccine is a very safe vaccine that likely confers lifelong immunity

Viscerotrophic definition of viscerotrophic by Medical

'These same viscerotropic viruses may cause typical signs and lesions of VVND when inoculated into chickens.' 'Most recently, a fatal case of viscerotropic disease with fulminant hepatic failure temporally associated with yellow fever vaccine was reported from Colombia. Viscerotropic leishmaniasis is a systemic infection reported in soldiers fighting in Operation Desert Storm in Saudi Arabia

viscerotropic disease; AEFI, adverse events following immunization; YFWG, yellow fever vaccine safety working group. 1. Introduction Yellow fever (YF) is a mosquito-borne disease that is endemic in South Central America and sub-Saharan Africa [1]. Fatality rates of YF vary considerably Yellow fever vaccine exists for over 80 years and is considered to be relatively safe. However, in rare cases it can produce serious neurotropic and viscerotropic complications. We report a case of a patient who presented both viscerotropic and neurological manifestations after yellow fever vaccination. We describe the case of a 37 years old man who developed after the yellow fever vaccination. The diagnosis of viscerotropic leishmaniasis should be considered for persons who have been in the Middle East and have an unexplained illness of at least several weeks' duration, especially if the illness is associated with fever or signs of involvement of the reticuloendothelial system Medical definition of viscerotonic: of, relating to, or characterized by viscerotonia

Viscerotropic Definition of Viscerotropic at Dictionary

  1. Yellow fever vaccine is a live-attenuated virus vaccine that has been available since the 1930s. No vaccine efficacy studies have been performed with yellow fever vaccine. However, the number of yellow fever disease cases was substantially reduced following the introduction of the vaccine supporting it being protective in humans
  2. Viscerotropic disease: Vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease is a recently described adverse event that on very rare occasions has occurred after the first immunization with the yellow fever 17D vaccine. Onset is within 10 days of vaccination and the pathological process is characterized by severe multi-organ failure and an overall case.
  3. What is yellow fever vaccine? Yellow fever is a serious disease caused by a virus that is spread through the bite of an infected mosquito. Yellow fever can cause fever and flu-like illness, jaundice (yellowing of the eyes and skin), liver failure, lung failure, kidney failure, vomiting of blood, and possibly death. Yellow fever vaccine is recommended for people who plan to live in or travel to.
  4. Yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease . Age greater than 60 years is a risk factor for yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) (14
  5. Yellow Fever Vaccine-Associated Viscerotropic Disease (YEL-AVD) YEL-AVD is a severe illness similar to wild-type YF disease, with vaccine virus proliferating in multiple organs and often leading to multiorgan dysfunction or failure and occasionally death
  6. The French or Dakar viscerotropic strain [4] was adapted, after a few monkey passages, to mouse brain [5] . The resulting French Neurotropic strain (FN) is widely used in mouse neutralization tests. A high mouse passage FN strain has been used by the French for vaccination. 17-D virus passaged in mice has also been used as a vaccine

Terminology. A neurotropic virus is said to be neuroinvasive if it is capable of accessing or entering the nervous system and neurovirulent if it is capable of causing disease within the nervous system. Both terms are often applied to central nervous system infections, although some neurotropic viruses are highly neuroinvasive for the peripheral nervous system (e.g. herpes simplex virus) ND - Velogenic Viscerotropic (VVND) - sometimes called 'asiatic' or exotic. It is highly virulent for chickens, less for turkeys and relatively apathogenic in psittacines. ND - Neurotropic Velogenic - Acute and fatal in chickens of any age causing neurological and some respiratory signs. Intestinal lesions are absent Yellow fever vaccine associated viscerotropic (YEL-AVD) The clinical presentation begins one to eighteen days (median four days) following vaccination (US data), with fever, malaise (generally feeling unwell), headache, and myalgia (muscle pain) that progress to hepatitis, hypotension (low blood pressure), and multi-organ failure and in some.

Viscerotropic velogenic Newcastle disease (VVND, see Newcastle Disease and Other Paramyxovirus Infections), caused by a paramyxovirus group 1, affects most avian species and is a significant threat to the poultry industry. Transmission is by respiratory aerosols, fecal contamination of food or water, direct contact with infected birds, and fomites What is a viscerotropic disease contracting from haemogogus and aloes mosquitos? Yellow fever What causes liver infections and jaundice, bloody gums, vomit, and feces, due to internal bleeding Yes, it appears people aged over 55 are several times more likely to develop vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease than younger people, although the overall risk remains very low

Viscerotropic disease: Case definition and guidelines for

  1. viscerotropic disease as an adverse event following immunization Viscerotropic disease (VTD) is defined as acute multiple organ system dysfunction that occurs following vaccination. The severity of VTD ranges from relatively mild multisystem disease to severe multiple organ system failure and death. The term VTD was first use
  2. viscerotropic. Affecting the viscera. [L. viscero, internal organs, + G. trope, a turning] vis·cer·o·trop·ic .vis-ə-rə-'träp-ik adj tending to affect or having an affinity for the viscera <\viscerotropic leishmaniasis>. vis·cer·o·tro·pic (vis″ ə r-o-troґpik) [ viscero- + -tropic] primarily acting on the viscera; having a.
  3. viscerotropic — adj. having an affinity for the internal organs, pertaining to the internal organs English contemporary dictionary. viscerotropic — |visərə.|träpik adjective Etymology: viscer + tropic : turning towards or having an affinity for the viscera used especially of a virus Useful english dictionar
  4. Viscerotropic disease : Case definition and guidelines for collection, analysis, and presentation of immunization safety data. / The Brighton Collaboration Viscerotropic Disease Working Group. In: Vaccine, Vol. 30, No. 33, 13.07.2012, p. 5038-5058. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › peer-revie
  5. Viscerotropic disease also provides a second level of classification: an YF vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) classification with suspected, probable, and confirmed levels with the confirmed level based on laboratory confirmation of YF vaccine virus detection.13 A patient with post-YF vaccination viscerotropic disease will.
  6. Viscerotropic disease — This condition is characterized by multisystem organ failure. Yellow fever infection can also cause multisystem organ failure. This adverse event happened so infrequently that it was not described until the early 2000s. In this situation, vaccine virus replicates and spreads throughout the body; onset occurs less than.

Yellow Fever Infection and Yellow Fever Vaccin

Introduction. Velogenic viscerotropic Newcastle disease (vvND) is enzootic in Africa and constitutes a major constraint to poultry production due to high morbidity, mortality and marked drop in egg production and quality (Solomon et al., 2012, Miller and Koch, 2013).The disease is caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV), which is an avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV-1) Mosquito-borne yellow fever virus (YFV) causes highly lethal, viscerotropic disease in humans and non-human primates. Despite the availability of efficacious live-attenuated vaccine strains, 17D-204 and 17DD, derived by serial passage of pathogenic YFV strain Asibi, YFV continues to pose a significant threat to human health Viscerotropic leishmaniasis-often called ''tropica''-affects the bone marrow, spleen and liver, causing symptoms that can include high fever, fatigue, chills, weakness and abdominal pain Viscerotropic leishmaniasis (VTL) is a parasitic disease with non-specific manifestations caused by Leishmania tropica. Specific antigens produced by Viscerotropic leishmaniasis gene have been used for diagnosis of VTL. The aim of this study was to compare the expression level of VTL gene among the viscerotropic L. tropica isolates (n: 3) and. Fatal Yellow Fever Vaccine-Associated Viscerotropic Disease — Oregon, September 2014. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2015;64 (10):279-281. In September 2014, a previously healthy.

Yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease

Gross Lesions of Velogenic Viscerotropic Newcastle Disease SLIDE 7: The presence of hemorrhages in the lining of the proventriculus is one of the more commonly found lesions. These hemorrhages may be absent but when found are strong evidence in favor of a positive VVND diagnosis. Hemorrhages may also occur on the serosal surfaces of this organ About 1 of every million people who receive the yellow fever vaccine can develop a disease that resembles yellow fever (called viscerotropic disease). This adverse reaction, which is occasionally fatal, occurs primarily in adults more than 65 years of age associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) that occurred after vac- cination in a 22-year-old female. Our patient presented with a clin- ical syndrome of fever, headache, nausea, and vomiting, which quickly progressed to multiorgan failure and ultimately death on hospital day 4. YEL-AVD is an extremely rare condition reporte Both yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic and neurologic disease are more common in in persons aged 60 years or older , therefore age 60 years or older is a precaution to receiving this vaccine

Experimental viscerotropic leishmaniasis is regularly caused by Leishmania tropica promastigotes. In the current investigation, the viscerotropic pathogenicities of Leishmania major amastigotes and promastigotes were compared and evaluated based on their heterogeneity traits and number of inoculated parasites in experimental mammalian hosts -Use in patients under 9 months old is contraindicated due to the risk of yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease, which usually occurs 10 days after vaccination.-A single dose provides long lasting protection in most healthy individuals, however an additional dose may be given who may not have an adequate or sustained vaccine.

viscerotropic ( not comparable ) Having an affinity for the digestive system . a viscerotropic strain of a virus viscerotropic leishmaniasis — a rare type of infection found in northeastern Saudi Arabia; after infection with Leishmania tropica, instead of the usual cutaneous symptoms, fever and other systemic symptoms are seen and Leishmania can be detected in internal organs.

viscerotropic answers are found in the Taber's Medical Dictionary powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android, and Web The yellow fever vaccine has also been associated with very rare viscerotropic disease and multisystem organ failure, caused by viral replication and dissemination throughout the body. Onset is.

(Psychology) a personality type characterized by hedonism and conviviality: said to be correlated with an endomorph body type. Compare cerebrotonia, somatotoni Signs. Velogenic Viscerotropic Newcastle Disease. This form is characterized by acute onset with up to 100% flock morbidity and rapidly ascending high mortality (20% in 2 days, 50% in 3 days, 80% in 5 days) accompanied by respiratory and nervous signs. In susceptible commercial egg production flocks and breeders, peracute cessation of.

Viscerotropic disease associated with yellow fever vaccination: a disease associated with vaccination against yellow fever and characterized by systemic multiple organ failure and clinical symptoms similar to those of wild yellow fever Risk groups for yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD). Seligman SJ 1. Author information. Affiliations. 1 author. 1. Department of Microbiology and Immunology, New York Medical College, 15 Dana Road, Valhalla, NY 10595, United States. Vaccine, 03 Sep 2014, 32. The invention of vaccines has been one of the greatest improvements in the world. Vaccines have prevented millions of deaths in the United States and billions of deaths around the world. BCG vaccine is a commonly used vaccine to treat, prevent and control tuberculosis in people around the world, especially children, In 1993, the World Health. Yellow fever vaccine is a live, attenuated viral preparation from the 17D virus strain. Since 1996, 34 cases of yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) have been described

How is Viscerotropic Velogenic Newcastle Disease abbreviated? VVND stands for Viscerotropic Velogenic Newcastle Disease. VVND is defined as Viscerotropic Velogenic Newcastle Disease rarely Vaccines are highly unlikely to cause side effects long after getting the shot. Science shows that even the most serious side effects for any vaccine, including COVID-19, occur within just a few. <section class=abstract><p>We report the first case of viscerotropic syndrome in Ecuador. Because of similarities between yellow fever and viscerotropic syndrome. Yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease is a rare sequela of live-attenuated virus vaccine. Elderly persons and persons who have had thymectomies have increased susceptibility. A review of published and other data suggested a higher than expected number of deaths from yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease among.

Respiratory signs with depression, watery greenish diarrhea, and swelling of the tissues of the head and neck are typical of the most virulent form of the disease, viscerotropic velogenic Newcastle disease, although nervous signs are often seen, especially in vaccinated poultry. Varying degrees of depression and inappetence are seen Abstract. Several risk groups are known for the rare but serious, frequently fatal, viscerotropic reactions following live yellow fever virus vaccine (YEL-AVD). Establishing additional risk groups is hampered by ignorance of the numbers of vaccinees in factor-specific risk groups thus preventing their use as denominators in odds ratios (ORs). Here Background: Yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD), is an extremely rare and life-threatening condition that occurs shortly after administration of the vaccine.It is characterized by multi-system organ failure including hemorrhagic fever, shock, renal failure, and hepatic failure.. Case: A 77-year-old Caucasian male experienced multi-system organ failure within seven. VISCEROTROPIC VELOGENIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS 96 APPENDIX B: BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM NECROPSY TISSUES NEGATIVE FOR NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS ISOLATION 107 . iii LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Species of birds exposed to viscerotropic velogenic Newcastle disease virus Table 2. Selected rn vitro and in vivo characteristics for. Clinical Description • Watery diarrhea is a common finding in the viscerotropic form of ND infection. • Soiling around the vent, as seen here, can be an important indicator of the presence of diarrhea. 3 days P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV 16

What are the signs and symptoms of visceral and

  1. Both patients died shortly after vaccination due to suspected yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD). YEL-AVD is a recognised adverse reaction that resembles severe yellow.
  2. Viscerotropic velogenic Newcastle disease (VVND) is the most virulent form; The etiologic agent of ND is a paramyxovirus, an RNA virus 120 to 300 nm in size. Iowa State University Digital Repository @ Iowa State University Retrospective Theses and Dissertations 1976 Viscerotropic velogenic Newcastle disease in six pet
  3. Viscerotropic velogenic : Sudden appearance Spreads rapidly Marked depression and loss of appetite Sharp drop in egg production Increased respiratory Profuse bright green diarrhoea Oedematous swellings of the head and cyanosis of the combs and conjonctivitis Prostration with many birds dying within a few days.

Risk of yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic

The velogenic pathotype of ND is the most severe form of ND with the velogenic viscerotropic pathotype being the most common and enzootic in Africa, Middle and Far East and some countries of Central and South America (Spradbrow 1988;Echeonwu et al.1993;Liu et al. 2003;Solomon et al. 2012) It is a disease of severe economic importance due to. Leishmaniasis is a group of diseases with a variety of clinical manifestations. The form of the disease is highly dependent on the infective Leishmania species and the immunological status of the host. The infectivity of the parasite strain also plays an important role in the progression of the infection. The aim of this work is to understand the influence of the natural infectivity of. Yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease is a rare sequela of live-attenuated virus vaccine. Elderly persons and persons who have had thymectomies have increased susceptibility. A review of published and other data suggested a higher than expected number of deaths from yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic Background There are three epidemiological types of visceral leishmaniasis in China, which are caused by Leishmania strains belonging to the L. donovani complex. The mechanisms underlying their differences in the population affected, disease latency, and animal host, etc., remain unclear. We investigated the protein abundance differences among Leishmania strains isolated from three types of. Yellow fever (YF) vaccines (17D-204 and 17DD) are well tolerated and cause very low rates of severe adverse events (YEL-SAE), such as serious allergic reactions, neurotropic adverse diseases (YEL-AND), and viscerotropic diseases (YEL-AVD). Viral and host factors have been postulated to explain the basis of YEL-SAE. However, the mechanisms underlying the occurrence of YEL-SAE remain unknown.

Viscerotropic disease: case definition and guidelines for collection, analysis, and presentation of immunization safety data. Vaccine. 2012;30(33):5038-5058. Languag The viscerotropic form of Newcastle disease is defined and the history of the present panzootic of this disease is reviewed. Evidence is presented to support the concept that the viscerotropic form is genetically different from established enzootic forms of Newcastle disease. Ways of differentiating the pathologic forms are described Exotic Newcastle disease (END) END is a contagious and fatal disease affecting all species of birds. Previously known as velogenic viscerotropic Newcastle disease, END is one of the most infectious diseases of poultry in the world. The mortality in unvaccinated birds can reach 100 percent, and birds may die without any clinical signs of disease

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viscerotropic events.12 The Brighton Collaboration case definitions and levels of diagnostic certainty of viscerotropic disease The key definition of viscerotropic disease as a serious post-YFV adverse event is the Brighton Collaboration definition (which builds on the initial definition of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention workin OVERALL PROJECT OBJECTIVE: To develop a reliable serologic test for viscerotropic leishmaniasis. SPECIFIC AIMS: Goal is to identify an antibody (Ab)-based serologic assay to detect active infection with Leishmania parasites causing the clinical syndrome of VTL using a standard format such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and characterized viscerotropic velogenic NDV from outbreaks of six different locations in and around Mumbai during 2014-2015. Materials and Methods Ethical approval The ethical approval is not necessary for such type of study. We have used the carcasses of chickens which were presented for postmortem examination. Farm history and sample collectio

VISCEROTROPIC Definition of VISCEROTROPIC by Oxford

Yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) is a recently described severe adverse event after yellow fever vaccination, and some cases have been reported in different. Aim: Diagnosis of velogenic viscerotropic Ranikhet disease from six different flocks of desi chicken in and around Mumbai by gross and histopathological examination, isolation of virus and molecular methods. Materials and Methods: A total of 25 carcasses (varying between 2 and 6 carcasses from each flock) of six different flocks of adult desi chicken were subjected to necropsy examination for.

Viscerotropic leishmaniasis - Wikipedi

Nurse researcher Kristen Choi, PhD, experienced first-hand a worst-case scenario of potential side effects after receiving an experimental COVID-19 vaccine in a phase III trial. She says. Viscerotropic disease (VTD) is defined as acute multiple organ system dysfunction that occurs following vaccination. The severity of VTD ranges from relatively mild multisystem disease to severe multiple organ system failure and death. The term VTD was first use Viscerotonia definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up now

Conclusion;—In this patient, viscerotropic disease was not due to the impaired magnitude of adaptive immunity but instead to anomalies in the innate immune system and a possible disruption of the CCR5-RANTES axis. Yellow fever is a mosquitoborne hemorrhagic disease that is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa and tropical South America Velogenic Viscerotropic (strain of Newcastle Disease virus) VV: Veronaville (Neighborhood in the Sims 2 computer game) VV: Vines Vikings (Texas high school) VV: Vocoded Voice (type of Frequency Shift Keying) VV: ViewPort Vivarium (Edstrom Industries animal research software product) V C. W. Beard 1973. These slides show the lesions most commonly observed in chickens that die of velogenic viscerotropic Newcastle disease (VVND). Not all of the lesions described in this report are present in all or even a large percentage of chickens

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Because viscerotropic disease has a highly predictable pathologic course, it is likely that viscerotropic disease post-YF vaccine occurs in low-income countries with the same incidence as in developing countries. YF vaccine is a very safe vaccine that likely confers lifelong immunity Viscerotropic complications following the vaccine are termed yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD). YEL-AVD typically appears within one week after vaccination. Symptoms are similar to the wild yellow fever virus: fever, headache, myalgia, vomit-ing, and diarrhea. Then can occur thrombocytopenia A hamster viscerotropic strain of yellow fever (YF) virus has been derived after serial passage of strain Asibi through hamsters. The parental Asibi/hamster p0 virus causes a mild and transient viremia in hamsters with no outward, clinical signs of illness Viscerotropic disease following yellow fever vaccination in Peru. By Gwong-jen Chang. Adverse events following yellow fever preventive vaccination campaigns in eight African countries from 2007 to 2010. By W. Perea and E. Agbenu. Yellow fever vaccine—how does it work and why do rare cases of serious adverse events take place Viscerotropic leishmaniasis is an interstitial form of leishmaniasis with some non-specific symptoms. These non-specific symptoms may be considered in endemic regions of CL, and also in immunocompromised patients to help differential diagnosis from other endemic diseases

Viscerotropic disease and acute uveitis following yellow

Despite its excellent safety record, some cases of viscerotropic adverse events develop, which are sometimes fatal. The mechanisms underlying such events remain a mystery. Here, we present an analysis of the immunologic and genetic factors driving disease in a 64-year-old male who developed viscerotropic symptoms vaccine-Associated viscerotropic disease. YEL-AVD first described in 2001. Febrile multiple organ system failure that mimics naturally acquired YF. 57 cases reported from 14 countries as of Feb 2010. Onset from vaccination 3 days (1-8 days) Time from vaccination to death 10 days (7-30 days) 65% fatality. All cases reported in first-time recipient Protecting Your Chickens from Newcastle Disease. Newcastle disease (ND), also known as pneumoencephalitis, is a contagious, viral infection that affects both domestic and wild birds, particularly chickens. The most highly contagious and deadly form of the Newcastle virus is known as viscerotropic velogenic Newcastle disease (VVND) SUMMARY The viscerotropic form of Newcastle disease is defined and the history of the present panzootic of this disease is reviewed. Evidence is presented to support the concept that the viscerotropic form is genetically different from established enzootic forms of Newcastle disease. Ways of differentiating the pathologic forms are described

Gross picture showing hemorrhages at the tip of

Viscerotropic velogenic ND in pigeons Table 1. Clinical, virologic, and serologic responses of pigeons exposed to the Fontana strain of viscerotropic velogenic Newcastle disease virus (VVNDV).A Bird Route of Morbidity and Virus Sero-maturity exposure Morbidity Mortality mortality (%) isolation conversion Adult IntraocularD 5/10 1/10 5/10 (50) 7. Mitigating yellow-fever-vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease in older travellers Rachael Fletcher, RGN, Rachael Fletcher, RGN National Travel Health Network and Centre, London, UK. Search for other works by this author on: Oxford Academic. PubMed. Google Scholar

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A side effect or reaction isn't necessarily all bad, by the way; it may indicate that the body is building protection against the virus. For the four vaccines listed above, common side effects include. pain at the site of the injection. painful, swollen lymph nodes in the arm where the vaccine was injected. tiredness More research is needed to determine the true incidence of viscerotropic disease according to the Brighton Collaboration criteria and to clarify host‐ and vaccine‐associated factors in the pathogenesis of YEL‐AVD. Healthcare providers should carefully consider, in the case of each traveler, whether the 17D vaccine should be administered How is Velogenic Viscerotropic (strain of Newcastle Disease virus) abbreviated? VV stands for Velogenic Viscerotropic (strain of Newcastle Disease virus). VV is defined as Velogenic Viscerotropic (strain of Newcastle Disease virus) rarely globulinemia.1-3 Viscerotropicleishmaniasis,incontrast to visceral leishmaniasis, is a recently described clinical variant of visceral disease primarily caused by L. Arbovirus species number > 250 and are distributed worldwide; at least 80 cause human disease. Birds are often reservoirs for arboviruses, which are transmitted by mosquitoes to horses, other domestic animals, and humans. Other reservoirs for arboviruses include arthropods and vertebrates (often rodents, monkeys, and humans)